Population and Population Policy in Pakistan W. PARKER MAULDIN Population Council, New York City W HEN political independence was gained by the huge populations of the Indian subconti-nent in 1947, two large nations were formed, India and Pakistan. Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia.It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million. The Council was instrumental in establishing the Population Association of Pakistan, a non-profit professional organization that shares scientific knowledge on population and development. Today the population of India numbers about 450 million; that of Pak-istan about 100 million. Pakistan Area and Population Density. In 1950 the mortality rate was twenty-seven per 1,000 population; by 1990 the rate had dropped to twelve (estimated) per 1,000. This Policy encourages examining FP/RH research system to improve upon and strengthen capacity to establish a sound knowledge basis for policy and practice. It has the world's second-largest Muslim population.It is the 33rd-largest country by area, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Population Policy has benefited from various researches undertaken on Pakistan in various aspects of fertility transition, reproductive health and family planning activities. Pakistan's extremely high rate of population growth is caused by a falling death rate combined with a continuing high birth rate. Back in 2001, the estimated population was around 142.5 million; the country, at that point, became the seventh most populated country in the entire world. It is expected that after a 30-years interval, the country would house 338 million people. The rate of population increase is 1.2 percent a year, which means the population will double in 58 years. Population note: provisional results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,774,000 CIA World Factbook Recent Activity Last collected in the year 2011, the population, at that point, stood at a reported 176,745,364. Pakistan has one of the highest birth rates which presents many challenges for the country. Pakistan’s population increased from 40 million in 1955 to 220 million in 72 years. Population Planning Policies and Problems. Family planning is the sole responsibility of the provincial government after transfer of the federally controlled Population Welfare Programme to the provinces in the wake of the 18 th Constitutional Amendment in 2010.This has provided Punjab with an opportunity to introduce a focused Population Policy specific to the province. This number came from a report that was published by the World Bank in 2012. 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